|商品簡介||Paranol S 菲林顯影劑 250ml|
Features and application
Paranol S is a ‘compensating’ developer based on p-Aminophenol. It is characterized by extremely high acutance and high emulsion speed yield – ideally suited for low to medium speed B/W negative films whose fine grain properties will be enhanced.
Paranol S works with wide exposure latitude and provides for a wide tolerance in processing. It is designed for processing in hand developer drums such as Jobo or Paterson. As a one shot developer the working solution cannot be re-used after mixing.
Paranol S is supplied in bottles with 0,25 l conc. for max. 25 films 135-36 or medium format 120.
Mix the working solution directly before use, as the dilution only keeps for a very short time.
The dilution varies according to the required contrast and preferred developing time: 1 part concentrate to 25 or 50 parts water:
1 + 25: 961 ml (water) + 39 ml (concentrate) = 1 l Working Solution
1 + 50: 980 ml (water) + 20 ml (concentrate) = 1 l Working Solution
Originally packed the concentrate has a shelf life of at least 2 years – once the bottles have been opened and they are tightly closed, the shelf life is at least 6 months. Tetenal Protectan gas can extend the storage life of partly filled bottles to prevent premature oxidation. A potential darkening of the developer concentrate within this time has no influence on the result.
The film developer concentrate Paranol when produced has a dark colour – a potential further darkening especially if the bottles are opened, is normal.
Developing is at room temperature, generally at 20°C. You can change the development time if higher or lower temperatures are used.
Depending on the used film and required dilution, the factor of the reduction or extension of the development time differs. The rule of thumb is factor 1.2 at 18°C and factor 0.85 at 22 °C and factor 0.75 at 24°C.
The below table shows the development times for current standard films, each for the both dilutions 1 + 25 and 1 + 50. The development times have been determined to achieve a beta of approx. 0.65.
The indicated times are starting points that can be individually decreased or increased. An increase of the time generally results in a higher contrast.
Agitation: 30 seconds agitation while continuously moving the developer drum in the first 30 seconds, afterwards agitation every 30 seconds .
We do not recommend processing in rotary processors.